BIE Family and Child Education Program

2016 Study

Report Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Indian Education


Research & Training Associates, Inc.


In 1990, the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE)? initiated the Family and Child Education (FACE) program, an integrated model for an American Indian early childhood education/parental involvement program. The FACE program primarily serves families with children prenatal to 5 years of age by providing early childhood, parenting and adult education services. The goals of the FACE program are to:

@ Support parents/primary caregivers in their role as their child's first and most influential teacher.

# Strengthen family-school-community connections.

¢ Increase parent participation in their child's learning and expectations for academic achievement.

¢ Support and celebrate the unique cultural and linguistic diversity of each American Indian community served by the program.

# Promote school readiness and lifelong learning.* Program Design and Implementation

The FACE program is implemented through a collaborative effort of the BIE, Parents as Teachers National Center (PAT), and the National Center for Families Learning (NCFL). Programs are located at BIE schools. PAT provides the home-based model and NCFL provides the center-based model. Home-based and center-based models have been integrated and infused with tribal language and culture to achieve the FACE model. PAT and NCFL provide the training and technical assistance to implement their components.

Home-based services are delivered by parent educators primarily to families with children ranging from prenatal to 3 years of age, although they also serve children from 3 through 5 if their family cannot participate in center-based services or other preschool services. Parent educators are trained and certified to use the PAT Foundational, Model Implementation and Foundational 2 Curriculum-Three through Kindergarten curricula in planning services for families. PAT's approach to parent education and family support includes three key areas of emphasis throughout the curriculum: development-centered parenting, parent-child interaction, and family well-being. The blend of personal visit plans and guided planning tools allow parent educators enough flexibility to individualize services for families while maintaining consistency required to produce desired outcomes. This approach and curriculum also help to organize discussions around family

! This document summarizes the 2016 Study of the BIE Family and Child Education Program that was prepared for the Bureau of Indian Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior by Research & Training Associates, Inc. (11030 Oakmont, Overland Park, KS 66210-1100) in May, 2017. Authors are: V. Yarnell, T. Lambson, and J. Pfannenstiel.

> Formerly the Bureau of Indian Affairs—BIA, Office of Indian Education Programs.

3 Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian Education. (2015). F amily and Child Education (FACE) Guidelines (p. 1). Washington, DC: Author.


well-being, child development, protective factors, and parenting behavior to strengthen the parent educator and family relationships. Services are delivered through weekly or bi-weekly personal visits that are usually 60-90 minutes in duration, monthly FACE Family Circles (Group Connections), periodic screening of overall health and development of the child, and referrals to school and community services.

NCFL provides training and technical assistance for center-based services, which are offered in the school facility and community to children aged 3 to 5 years and their parents. The components are adult education, early childhood education, Parents and Children Together Time® (PACT Time), and Parent Time. Adult education addresses the academic and employability needs of the parents and supports the enhancement of parenting skills, school and community involvement, and cultural identity. Early Childhood Education is provided for children through the implementation of the NCFL CIRCLES: A Developmentally Appropriate Preschool Curriculum for American Indian Children that emphasizes literacy and active involvement of children in their learning. The BIE Early Learning Guidelines and Preschool Standards for Math and Language/Literacy* are implemented to facilitate a smooth transition for children from FACE preschool to kindergarten. PACT Time provides parent-child interaction each day and includes bringing parents and children together to work, play, read, and learn. Interactions can take place in the classroom and in the home and can lead to positive language, literacy, emotional, and cognitive development of children. Center-based services also include periodic screening of overall health and development of the child and referrals for services.

Home- and center-based staffs collaborate to provide comprehensive services to all FACE families and to support family transitions, such as children transitioning to preschool or kindergarten, and adults transitioning to employment or other educational programs. The center-based staff also supports teachers and parents in elementary school classrooms where parents engage in PACT Time with their child.

FACE Participation

During the 26-year history of FACE, the number of schools implementing FACE increased from the initial six programs to 43 programs in PY16 (over time, FACE has been implemented in 61 different schools; 18 programs discontinued for various reasons). FACE has served 46,734 participants, including 24,911 children and 21,823 adults in approximately 18,700 American Indian families. Since the inception of the FACE program, 62% of children and adults participated in only the home-based component, 20% participated in only the center-based component, and 18% participated in the full FACE model (receiving both home- and center-based services). Of the 19,090 FACE children who received home-based services since the inception of FACE, 21% transitioned into center-based preschool, comprising almost half of the children who received center-based services.

The positive impacts of the FACE program are evidenced by its longevity. Four of the original six programs still serve families. Over the program’s history, 150 participants received FACE services first as a child and then as an adult. The oldest former child participant is now about 30 years of age.

4 Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian Education. (2006). FACE early childhood standards, 2006-2007 (pp. 1- 2). Washington, DC: Author. Developed by a team of early childhood practitioners and experts from BIE, FACE programs, NCFL, PAT, and Research & Training Associates, Inc.


PY 16 participants include 2,221 children and 2,108 adults from 1,916 families served at 43 sites (see Table 1). Two-thirds of participants received home-based-only services, 29% participated in center-based-only services and 4% participated in both home- and center-based services.

Table 1. Number and Percentage of Participants by FACE Services Received During PY16

Both Center- & Center-based only Home-based only Home-based All Services N % = N % > N % N Adults 603 29 | 1,386 66 | 119 6 2,108 Children 672 301,495 66 54 2 2,221 All Participants 1,275 29 2,881 6 173 4 4,329

During PY16, 1,549 children and 1,505 adults received home-based services, participating in an average 10 personal visits and one group meeting during the year. Center-based services were provided to 726 children who attended FACE preschools, and 722 adults who participated in at least some of the center-based services (adult education, PACT Time, and Parent time). A total of 552 adults participated in an average 133 hours of adult education, 670 adults participated in an average 47 hours of PACT Time, and 620 attended 43 hours of Parent Time.

Prior to PY 15, center-based families were required to participate in four center-based components: FACE preschool, adult education, PACT Time, and Parent Time. The adoption of more flexible requirements resulted in different types of center-based participation among families beginning in PY15. The most notable result of this change was a large increase in the number of children who attended the FACE preschool, which increased from 521 children in PY 14 to 743 in PY15 and 726 in PY16.° The number of adults participating in at least one component increased from 619 in PY 14 to 693 in PY15 and 722 in PY16. Based on research findings and FACE studies, the revised 2015 FACE guidelines emphasize the importance of parent involvement in their child’s development and education by requiring parents to participate in some form of parent engagement activities even if they do not participate in FACE adult education.

Of PY16 center-based adults, 67% participated in the original model: adult education, PACT Time, and Parent Time; 16% attended only PACT Time and Parent Time, and 17% participated in various other combinations of center-based adult services (e.g., adult education and PACT Time but no Parent Time; PACT Time only, etc.)

Screening and Preventive/Safety Outcomes for FACE Children The early prevention and detection of developmental delays and health and dental problems is a critical component of the FACE program. Periodic screenings provide the means for early

prevention, detection and intervention. The following are findings for PY 16 FACE children:

¢ Ninety-three percent of children—including 92% of home-based children and 94% of center- based children—were screened during PY 16.

> The number of preschoolers served is missing for one site in PY16 due to the program’s records being vandalized.


¢ Of children who were screened, 25% were identified with developmental concerns—mostly in the areas of language/communication and physical development. Approximately half of children identified with concerns (or 12% of all screened children) were referred for services.

¢ Fifteen percent of all screened children (20% of screened center-based children and 13% of screened home-based children) were identified with language/communication concerns.

@ Six percent of PY16 children have an IEP or IFSP. The most frequently identified type of need is speech or language delay, reported for 65% of these children. Of the children ready to exit FACE preschool and enter kindergarten, 15% have an IEP/IFSP, an increase of 4 percentage points compared with the previous year.

¢ Almost one-third of children demonstrated special medical concerns at birth.

@ Eight percent of children have ongoing medical conditions, most frequently respiratory system issues and integumentary system conditions.

¢ Sixteen percent of children older than 112 years were diagnosed with dental abnormalities, mostly due to decay of their baby teeth.

¢ Nationally, 71.6% of children aged 19-35 months are current with their immunizations.° By comparison, 92% of PY16 FACE children in this age group were current with the recommended immunizations.

¢ Parents reported that 98% of PY16 FACE children use car seats. Appropriate use of car seats for children has been a large focus in FACE parenting education. This focus on safety extends to the use of helmets when biking or skating. For children aged 4 or older, 65% reportedly wear a helmet when engaged in these activities.

¢ Ninety-one percent of children are routinely taken to the same medical facility for regular medical check-ups and sick care. Eighty-nine percent of children are within normal weight and height limits for their age. At least 83% of the FACE children are covered by a health insurance plan, a dramatic two-year increase over the percentage in PY 14 when only half of the children had medical insurance coverage.

Cognitive Outcomes for FACE Children

Center-based staff members and parents are trained to implement a reading strategy that is designed to increase the vocabulary and language comprehension of young children. FACE preschool children are assessed with the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT) to measure growth in expressive vocabulary.’ Teachers administer the assessment in

6 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6433al .htm#Tab2 (Holly A. Hill, MD, PhD; Laurie D. Elam- Evans, PhD; David Yankey, MS, MPH; James A. Singleton, PhD; Maureen Kolasa, MPH. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19—35 Months United States, 2014. Morbity and Morbity Weekly Report from Center for Disease Control and Prevention, August 28, 2015 / 64(33);889-896.)

7 Published by Academic Therapy Publications.

the fall, at midterm, and in the spring. Scores are standardized to a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

@ Average pre-test standard scores range from a low of 92 (for children who attended the center-based program midterm-spring), which equates to the 30" national percentile, to 96 (for the children who attended fall-spring), which equates to the 39" national percentile (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Average EWOPVT Standard Scores and National Percentile Equivalents by PY16 Testing Cycle

All PY16 Fall-Midterm Midterm- Fall-Spring Scores Scores Spring Scores Scores (n=518) (n=37) (n=100) (n=384) m Pre-test Std Score E Post-test Std Score @ Pre-test Ntl Pctl OPost-test Ntl Pctl

¢ FACE children significantly and meaningfully increased their performance at post-test. Their post-test scores increased by an average of 7 standard scores, which is a meaningful increase of approximately one-half of a standard deviation. The average post-test score for preschoolers is 102, which is two standard scores above the national average and equates to the 55" national percentile.

¢ Children who attended preschool the entire year and were tested in the fall and spring of PY 16 demonstrated the largest gains, with an average increase of 7 standard scores (one-half of a standard deviation), rendering them at the 58" national percentile at the end of the school year.

@ FACE preschool children with IEPs scored significantly below other preschoolers at pre- test, scoring a full standard deviation below the national average with a standard score of 85. At post-test, children with IEPs increased their average score to 93, a significant and meaningful increase of approximately one-half of a standard deviation. Although they continue to score significantly lower than other preschoolers (who had average pre-test and post-test scores of 96 and 103, respectively), they made meaningful progress in closing the gap and reaching the national average as preschoolers.

Early childhood teachers also assess developmental progress of FACE preschoolers using Meisels’ Work Sampling System (WSS). Sixty-three percent of center-based children were rated at least twice on performance indicators in each of eight domains during PY16.°

¢ For each of the eight domains, FACE preschool children demonstrate statistically significant improvement in ratings on every domain for both 3- and 4-year-old children.

¢ Approximately one-half of ratings for 3-year-olds and three-fourths of ratings for 4-year- olds demonstrate proficiency in physical development. Approximately one-third of ratings for 3-year-olds and about two-thirds of ratings for 4-year-olds indicate proficiency in personal/social development and the arts. Approximately one-fourth of 3-year-olds and one- half of 4-year-olds are rated as proficient in the language/literacy, language/literacy for English learners, mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, and social studies domains.

Parents believe that FACE has a large impact on the cognitive development of their home- and center-based children.

@ Eighty-one percent of parents believe that FACE participation has a large impact on increasing their child’s interest in learning.

¢ Approximately three-fourths of parents report that FACE participation has a large impact on increasing their child's interest in reading, increasing their child's verbal/communication skills, increasing their child's self-confidence, and preparing their child for school.

¢ Almost 70% of parents report a large impact on improving their child’s ability to get along with other children, while almost 30% report somewhat of an impact.

Home Literacy Practices

¢ Home- and center-based parents report that FACE participation has a large positive impact on their home literacy practices.

# Seventy-six percent of FACE parents read to their child daily or almost daily. Seventy-seven percent of FACE parents with children ages 3-6 also report they read to those children on a daily or almost daily basis. This is a considerably higher percentage than parents nationwide. Only 55% of parents nationally read to their 3- to 6-year-old children this frequently (see Figure 3).

8 WSS domains include personal and social development, language and literacy, language and literacy for English learners, mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, social studies, the arts, and physical development.


Figure 3. Percentage Distribution of Frequency That Center-based Parents and Parents Nationally Read to Their Child 100

80 m FACE Parents

E Nationwide




Rarely or never A few times a week Daily or almost daily

Nationwide, parents who are categorized as similar in economic status to most FACE families read to their children even less frequently. Only 40% of those parents read daily to their 3- to 6-year-old children.

FACE parents significantly increase the frequency that they provide opportunities for their child to scribble, draw or write from 87% reporting that this occurred daily or almost daily initially to 93% of parents who do so at year’s end.

FACE parents significantly increase the frequency that they listen to their child "read" by year’s end. Eighty-one percent of FACE parents reported listening to their child "read" on a daily or almost daily basis early in FACE participation, increasing to 84% at the end of their FACE participation.

FACE parents significantly increase the frequency that they encourage their child to complete responsibilities; 82% of parents reported that this occurred daily or almost daily initially and 86% of parents report this frequency at year’s end.

FACE parents significantly increase the frequency that they let their child make choices by year’s end. Eighty-five percent of FACE parents reported letting their child make choices on a daily or almost daily basis early in FACE participation, increasing to 90% at the end of their FACE participation.

The frequency that FACE parents tell stories to their child significantly increases during FACE participation. Early in their participation, 70% of parents reported they tell stories to their child daily or almost daily. At the end of the year, 76% of parents do so.

The number of children's books reported at the time of initial enrollment increased significantly by the end of PY16. The percentage of households with 31 to 50 books increased from 16% to 27%, and households with more than 50 children's books increased from 20% to 30% at the end of PY16. Forty-four percent of FACE households had 20 or fewer children's books initially, but by the end of PY16 that percentage had decreased to 24%. All households had at least five children's books.

Parent Involvement in Children’s Education

The FACE program's focus on increasing parent involvement in children’s education is supported by research, which indicates that parent involvement in their child’s school increases literacy achievement—and matters most for children at greatest risk. The involvement of PY16 FACE parents in the education of their K-5 children is compared with national.’ See Figure 4.

Figure 4. Percentage of FACE Parents of K-5 Children and a National Comparison Group of Parents Reporting Involvement in Their Child’s Education


@FACE Parents

89 m National

Parents 60



Attend classroom or school events Volunteer in classroom/school or on committees

¢ Most FACE parents with K-5 children attend classroom or school events (90%), compared with fewer parents nationally (80%).

¢ Almost 70% of PY16 FACE parents volunteer in the classroom or school or participate on school committees; 53% of parents nationally do so.

Outcomes for FACE Adults The FACE program encourages parents to set explicit goals for themselves. Ninety-nine percent of home-based parents set goals and 80% completed one or more goals. Similarly, 98% of center-

based adults set goals and 85% completed them.

@ Eighty percent of center-based adults set parenting goals; 68% of these center-based adults achieved their parenting goals.

@ Seventy-seven percent of home-based adults set parenting goals for themselves; 63% of the home-based adults who set parenting goals completed their goals.

At least 90% of home- and center-based parents report that FACE impacts their parenting skills somewhat or a lot in all areas that are measured.

¢ Significantly more parents who participated in home-based-only services believe that FACE helped them a Jot to increase their understanding of child development (76% vs. 70%).

° National Center for Education Services. (2012). Parent and family involvement in education, from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2012. p. 6. Retrieved April 18, 2016 from: http://nces.ed. gov/pubs2013/2013028rev.pdf



Compared with home-based-only parents, significantly more full-FACE-model parents report that FACE helped them a lot to increase their ability to encourage their child’s interest in reading (77% vs. 68%) and to speak up for their child (70% vs. 65%).

Almost 80% of parents indicate that FACE helped them a lot in increasing the amount of time they spend with their child, in becoming more involved in their child’s education, in becoming a better parent, and in more effectively interacting with their child.

The academic achievement of adults is an important focus for the center-based component of FACE. In FACE adult education, teachers assess academic achievement with the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS).


Seventeen percent of FACE adults scored at beginning reading levels (pre- beginning/beginning literacy or beginning/intermediate basic skills) at pre-test; 46% scored at the highest levels (adult secondary or advanced adult secondary). At post-test, 16% scored at the beginning levels and 58% scored at the highest levels, with 30% scoring at the advanced adult secondary level.

Forty-five percent of adults with matched scores in math scored at the pre-beginning to intermediate basic skills in math, decreasing to 36% at post-test. Fifty-four percent were assessed at the advanced basic skill level or higher at pre-test; 64% scored at that level or higher at post-test.

Twenty-nine percent of adults increased their reading score at least one level, and 33% advanced at least one level in mathematics.

On average, adults demonstrate a statistically significant 3-point increase in reading and a 3- point increase in math. Sixty-six percent of adults demonstrated reading gains and 66% demonstrate gains in mathematics.

Almost two-thirds of center-based adults set educational goals; slightly more than one-third of these adults completed at least one educational goal. Slightly more than 35% of home- based adults set educational goals and 15% of these adults achieved them.

@ Eighty-five percent of center-based adults report improved academic skills for personal

growth; 58% report that they were helped a lot in this area. Sixty-one percent report improved academic skills for advanced education; 31% report that they were helped a lot.

Among the PY 16 center-based adults with the goal of obtaining a GED or a high school diploma, FACE participation helped 43% of these adults make progress towards achieving their goal. They either passed a GED test, received a GED diploma or received a high school diploma.

Forty-seven adults completed GED or high school diploma requirements in PY16. Twenty- nine of the adults who completed requirements for a GED or high school diploma are center- based adults; 18 are home-based adults. Eleven percent of the PY 16 adults without a GED or high school diploma at enrollment earned their GED or diploma during the year. Since the inception of FACE, approximately 1,470 FACE adults have obtained their GED or high school diploma.


¢ FACE’s promotion of life-long learning is demonstrated by 104 home-based adults and 91 center-based adults who attended college or vocational courses during the year. Slightly more than one-fourth of the PY16 adults who report they are discontinuing the FACE program at the end of the year plan to enroll in college or technical school after leaving the FACE program.

¢ During PY16, 406 adults became employed; 52% were home-based adults and 48% were center-based adults. Of 189 center-based adults who enrolled in FACE to improve their chances for getting a job or a better job, 35% report that FACE helped them obtain a job or a better job. Throughout the history of FACE, approximately 6,650 adults gained employment during their FACE participation.

¢ Some FACE participants earn the required credentials to become employed in FACE. Thirty-one percent of FACE staff members are former FACE participants.

@ As a result of FACE participation, most FACE adults (86-95%) report feeling better about themselves, having more self-direction and self-discipline, having increased frequency of interactions with other adults, and gaining improved communication skills.

@ Slightly more than 70% of FACE adults report that FACE participation helped improve their physical fitness.

Integration of Native Language and Culture

The FACE program supports and celebrates the culture and language of the FACE communities. Over time, tribal members have obtained the qualifications to predominantly staff the FACE programs. Native language and culture are also infused throughout the FACE program.

@ The FACE program prioritizes the hiring of tribal and community members. Eighty percent of all PY 16 FACE staff positions are held by American Indians. Almost all parent educators (945), 73% of coordinators, 59% of adult education teachers, 66% of early childhood teachers, and 92% of early childhood co-teachers are American Indian.

@ Approximately 95% of FACE programs report that language and/or cultural traditions and values are integrated at least sometimes in each of the FACE components.

¢ In the 34 FACE schools that have a culture teacher, the teacher assists the FACE staff in efforts to integrate native language and culture in FACE programs. The culture teacher provides classroom instruction for FACE preschoolers in 23 of the programs and for FACE adults in 19 schools.

@ Sixty percent of PY16 adults indicate that participation in FACE helps increase their use of their native language. Sixty-seven percent of PY16 adults who participate in center-based- only services report this impact, as do significantly fewer 58%, but more than half, of adults who participate in the home-based-only services.


FACE Sites in Program Year 2015-2016

Alamo Navajo Community School, Magdalena, NM American Horse School, Allen, SD

Aneth Community School, Montezuma Creek, UT

Atsa Biyaazh Alternative School (Shiprock), Shiprock, NM Baca/Dlo'ay azhi Community School, Prewitt, NM Beclabito Day School, Shiprock, NM

Blackwater Community School, Coolidge, AZ

Bread Springs Day School, Gallup, NM

Casa Blanca Community School, Bapchule, AZ

Chi Chi'l Tah-Jones Ranch Community School, Vanderwagen, NM Chief Leschi School, Puyallup, WA

Dunseith Indian Day School, Dunseith, ND Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-Hle, Bloomfield, NM

Enemy Swim Day School, Waubay, SD

Fond du Lac Ojibwe School, Cloquet, MN

Gila Crossing Community School, Laveen, AZ Greasewood Springs Community School, Ganado, AZ Hannahville Indian School, Wilson, MI

John F. Kennedy Day School, White River, AZ

Kayenta Boarding School, Kayenta, AZ

Kin Dah Lichi'i Olta’, Ganado, AZ

Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe School, Hayward, WI

Leupp Community School, Winslow, AZ

Little Singer Community School, Winslow, AZ

Little Wound School, Kyle, SD

Many Farms Community School, Chinle, AZ (formerly Chinle Boarding School) Mariano Lake Community School, Crownpoint, NM Na'Neelzhiin Ji'Olta Day School (Torreon), Cuba, NM Oneida Nation Elementary School, Oneida, WI

Pearl River Elementary School, Philadelphia, MS

Pine Ridge School, Pine Ridge, SD

Pueblo Pintado, Cuba, NM

Ramah Navajo School, Pine Hill, NM

Rough Rock Community School, Chinle, AZ

Salt River Elementary School, Scottsdale, AZ

St. Francis Indian School, St. Francis, SD

Tate Topa Tribal School, Fort Totten, ND

Theodore Jamerson Elementary School, Bismark, ND

T'iis Nazbas Community School, Teec Nos Pos, AZ

T’iis Ts'ozi Bi'Olta' Community School (Crownpoint), Crownpoint, NM To'Hajiilee-He Community School (Canoncito), Laguna, NM Tse 'ii' ahi’ Community School, Crownpoint, NM

Wingate Elementary School, Fort Wingate, NM