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342666 1941

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WAR AND McGILL, 1914-1939




Gwen Roberts Norman










The McGill News invites the submission of articles for thz Editor’s consideration, particularly articles by graduates or members of the University staff. Payment for such contributions has been authorized by the Editorial Board, provided that there is agreement as to such payment between the Editor and the contributor before the article is published. Commu- nications concerning articles, and about all other editorial matters, should be addressed to: Robert W. Jones, Editor, The McGill News, 3466 University Street, Montreal, Que.




3 35 36 45 46 48 Di, 58 60 62 64


Autumn, 1939 Vol. XXI, No. 1 + Editorial Board




G. A. COPPING M.D.C.M. *30



D. M. LEGATE B.A. '27

MISS M. S. MACSPORRAN B.A. '27, M.A. ’30

T. F. M. NEWTON B.A. ‘25, M.A. '27

A. S. NOAD B.A. '19, M.A. °21

A. A. M. WALSH B.A. ’33, B.C.L.’36

GB.’ GLASSCO) B.Sc. '05 Se:retary


= The McGill News

(Copyright registered) is published quarterly by the Graduates’ Society of McGill University and distri- buted to its members. Annual dues are $3.00. To those not eligible for member- ship the subscription price is $3.00 per annum; single copies, 75c each.

Publication Dates: Autumn (Sept.15th) Spring (Mar. 15th) Winter (Dec. 15th) Summer (June 15th) Please address communications as follows:

The McGill News, 3466 University St., Montreal - Telephone: MArquette 2664

* ys * I 7 Age Paha Of Efi ry Rp yd Pe a A : r, Valai} dn emblem to be proud of: The McGill shield with baccalaureate wreath representing the achievement of graduation from McGill.

The Graduates’ Society of McGill Gniversity Executive Office: 3466 University St., Montreal

President, HUGH A. CROMBIE, B.Sc. 718 Honorary Secretary, A. S. BRUNEAU, B.A.’13, B.C,L'17 First Vice-President, CHARLES R. BOURNE, M.D. 712 Hon. Treasurer, J. W. McCAMMON, B.Sc. 712

Second Vice-President, E. G. McCRACKEN, B.Sc. 724 Executive Secretary, G. B. GLASSCO, B.Sc. ’05 Executive Committee JOHN T. HACKETT, B.C.L. ’09 F. B. GURD, B.A. ’04, M.D. ’06 *. G. ROBINSON, B.A. ’05 (Immediate Past President) C. K. McLEOD, B.Sc. 713 ___ President, Montreal Branch Soety W. G. HANSON, B.Sc. 712 Miss J. GRACE GARDNER, B.A. 718 1, DRUMMOND-SMITH, Med. ’39 O. 8S. TYNDALE, B.A. ’08, B.C.L. 715 President, Alumnae Societ Pre nt, Students’ Council

Nomin bit Committee

A. H. ELDER, B.A. 710, B.C.L. 713 R. E. JAMIESON, B.Sc. 714 . S. PATCH, B.A. 799, Ne ri 03 S. B. I COCK, LL.D. (Hon.) 736 DCs ABBOTT, ian pal R. R. STRUTHERS, B.A. 714, M.D. W. G. McBRIDE, B.Sc. ’02 Miss M. V. HAMILTON, B.A. ’35 {. A. CUSHING, B.Sc. 717

Representatives of Graduates’ Society

1, Students’ Counci

On Athletics Board On Advisory Bo

On Board of Governors of the Univer

Ti. LY McLEAN, B.A. 708, B.C.L. 21 Gar: eope J. S. CAMERON, B.Se. ’08 J. T. HACKETT, B.C.L. ’09 D: i. ,_ B-C.L. 73 A. FE. SARGENT, B.Sc. 713 Gc "G. MACKINNON, J. Stu.), / B.A. °00, B.C.L. *03 Board of Trustees, McGill University Graduates’ Endowment Fund From the Graduates’ Society From the Board of Governors of the University W. MOLSON, B.A. ’04, Chairman W. M. BIRKS (Past Stu.) Arts ’86 C. F. SISE, B.S casurer G. S$. CURRIE, B.A. ’11 D. S. LEW 1S, B 06, M.D. 712 G. C. McDONALD, B.A. ’04 D. BREMNER, B.Sc. J. W. ROSS, LL.D. (Hon) ’22 D. C. ABBOTT, B.C. 2 A. B. WOOD, B.A. ’92 H. M. JAQUAYS, B.A. 792, ve He 96 GREGOR BARCLAY, B.A. ’06, B.C.L. Sir Arthur Currie Memorial Gymnasium-Armoury Building Fund Campaign Executive Committee H. M. JAQUAYS, Chairman JOHN T. HACKETT, Gy Lt.-Col. T. S. MORRISEY, G. W. BOURKE, G. B. GLASSCO, Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman Honorary Treasurer Executive Secretary Members D. C. ABBOTT H. R. COCKFIELD OHN A. NOL: Hon. Mr. JUSTICE BARCLAY HUGH A, CROMBIE { F Sree DOUGLAS BREMNER E. A. CUSHING Mrs. JOHN RHIND L. N. BUZZELL A, SIDNEY DAWES WALTER MOLSON C. F. SISE ; P , Actibe Branches of the Graduates’ Society shat Society, Montreal : Mon ie Branch Ontario—Continued St. Francis District Miss Grace Garpner, President ROBINSON, President H. C. Daviss, Treasure we OO Se Miss Evzanon Miner, Cor. Sec’y . H. McKim, Vice-President 35 Glebe Rd. W., Toronto Fad ee Miss Marcaret Donps, Treasurer ot. P. P. Hurcnison, Hon. Sec’y a Ne College, Stanstead District of Bedford, Que. Ho MUS eat Eas gin ne 76 Welle gitar 4 < ne eA Seceny 3. Harotp Burtann, President ; i Ficee Sly boda owans , Que. isi ; SLY GML tee er 7 ellington St. N., § rooe Rev. E. M. Taytor, See.-Treasurer Dn. Cyrit K. Cuuren, President ae or gla Bag mien ee! aCe peat 30 East 40th St., N.Y. 406 Connor St., Ottawa " ae Matted = rm sar C. Maxwetu Taytor, Asst. Secretary St. Maurice Valley Pee Ir. J. K. MacDonatp, Secretary 683 Echo Dave O f ic . . chicago e 203 Mamaronick, Ave.. 2 Echo Drive, Ottawa J.P. Wickenven, President C, B. Macratn, President White Plains, N.Y 363 St. Francois Xavier St 199 Birch St., Winnetka, III. ames R SIMPSON a NS here AO webe: Three Rivers : J. A. Evcene Viner, Sec.-Treas. Pa ev R ONY TEGO UL EL, Jr. R. C. Hastines, President < a The Orrington, Evanston, Ill. 730 Empire State Bldg., N.Y. 44 Grand Allée, Gane a 852 Nowe Bi: oe hee aa Rivrs Detroit E, D. Gray-Donatp, Secretary W. D. Little, President Noranda 12 St. Denis Ave., Quebec Vancouver and District ie Parkside Ave., Detroit Oriver Hatt, President ; oe Se fas M. Merairt, Leaner Noranda Mines Ltd., Noranda, Que. Rochester “ie ve F. i OF RENTON, Presidet Es lie ee Aves Deen, Nah. Dr. Raymonp Exziorr, President Dh ae ee ee ee d 78 So. Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N.Y. Ross Witson, Secretary Great Britain Ontario dr. H. R. Drvspate, Sec.-Treasurer 802 Royal Trust Bldg., Vancouer, B.C. Dr. A. S. Eve, President W. D. Witson, President 1066 Monroe Ave., Rochester, N.Y. 26 Willow Rd., Hampstead, N.W. 3 F. I. Ker, Vice-President Victoria and District GE: Bett, Secretary a : Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Saskatchewan Yr. H. M. Rorertson, Presidet Deloro Smelting & Refining Co., C. S. K. Ropinson, Vice-President st-Cot. J. G. Roperston, President 029 Douglas St., Victoria, B.C 8 Waterloo Place, S.W. 1 3510 Russell St., Windsor Live Stock Commission, Regina 1) Aka WMAGieAN: Sue Tr, F eS Fas Tens : ree . Avan Macrean, Sec.-Treasur as rei t r EC4 EK. G. McCracken, Secretary M. J. SPRATT, Secretary ; Provincial Parliament Bldg., ar dgs., Temple 183 George St., Toronto 2302 Elphinestone St., Regina Victoria, B.C.


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Fach year the University offers

(1) Four or more University Entrance Scholarships with a maximum value of $300 a year.

A number of Entrance Scholarships of smaller value.

A number of Entrance Bursaries to students of ability who have financial need,

These awards are normally renewable annually until the holders graduate.

For details of these and other scholarships and bursaries see the special Scholarships Announcement which may be obtained from the Registrar's Office.

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War and McGill, 1914-1939

N THEwar which began in 1914 women and men of VicGill gave their every thought—made every effot—so that there might be peace.

The fighing, begun in 1914, ended in 1918; but peace, wor then, is now gone and war has come again to MsGill. In truth, the War of 1939 is a con- tinuation ¢ the War of 1914. We fought then, as we do now anc always must do, to preserve our free- dom. Our feedom to choose our laws for ourselves.

In 1914 Germany marched through neutral Belgium. [hat final violence brought war to us. The violaton of a neutrality guaranteed by her- self was nc an isolated event; it was the culmin- ation, thrugh many years, of a policy which sought advantage for Germany by the use of force. Thecontemptuous insolence of that viola- tion made 1s realize that we must fight lest we too should be »verwhelmed, as had been so many of Germany’: neighbours.

In 1939,after a long series of perjured violences on all her bundaries, Germany’s rape of Poland at last reawalens our fears and forces our resistance.

We figh, once again, so that war may cease. We fight, s we must always fight, to protect our children, air homes and ourselves. We fight to preserve air system of government—our social philosophy, Under our system of government, we obey the vill of our majorities; and so, we rule ourselves. With us, every man is free to act as he wishes, so bng as his actions do not deny a similar right to hi; fellows.

German’ advocates the use of armies, of com- bined forces, to win advantages for Germans over others. We believe ina fair field and leave indi- viduals of wery race free, as we are, to win success for themseves. For us, the nation exists to benefit its citizens for Germany, the nation is an end for which individuals and their well-being are to be sacrificed.

We are ighting again because we believe our system toe the better one. To that system we on this cortinent owe our prosperity. Because of it, our gemration enjoys a luxury—a universally high standrd of living—such as the world had never seen

Our denocratic self-government, with its free- dom for tle individual, is the slowly-grown fruit of centuris. Our fathers built and won that system forus. We will preserve it. Let there be no mistake in 1939 as in 1914, all that we are and have is ensaged in a struggle, against the threat of Germandomination, to preserve our customs, our moralsand our right to govern ourselves.


Though the basis of war remains the same, there are great changes in its conduct and in our preparedness. In 1914, war came as a surprise and but few of us knew it and its stresses. The war of today is the renewal of a bitter experience for many of us and, to us all, it is the realization of often-repeated German threats. In 1914, aviation, tanks and poison gas were almost un- known. War was less mechanical and the German rush on Paris made an instant need for many men. Canada sent them.

The need of today is for men trained in the use of modern weapons, for those weapons and for war supplies of all sorts. There is much that the men and women of McGill can do to meet the needs of today, just as they did those of 1914.

For four years, from 1914 to 1918, the tramp of marching feet left the Campus bare of grass. On the first Armistice Day, 3,059 children of our Alma Mater had served. Of them 363 had died and a thousand were wounded. They had won 791 decorations and, twice, the Victoria Cross. McGill did train many soldiers and did prepare many units; but, those who together made our University in 1914 did a work that was even more important. They created a true knowledge of the war and of its necessities.

In 1914, McGill’s staff, students and graduates numbered about 8,000; today thece are about 13,000 graduates alone. Thirteen thousand men and women who, by their training and position, are the specialists, advisers and teachers of those about them. Their examples and voices are the best method of spreading a knowledge of this war and of its necessities.

Twenty-five years ago many Canadians and friends of Canada many universities, within Canada and without saw what was done by McGill and did likewise. It will be so again.

In 1914, McGill commenced her effort after consultation with the Prime Minister. In 1939, it is with Government approval that a War Ser- vice Advisory Board is established within McGill University. The purpose of the Board is to advise those of McGill how best they can serve their country. (A statement of the Board’s organiza- tion and functions appears on the next page.)

Once again, the Canadian Officers’ Training Corps of McGill will do a most important work. With military knowledge, a nation fights as an army and is strong; without military training a nation at war is an impotent mob.

We all must have special knowledge of our own service, whatever form it may take; special schools will train men for tanks, aviation, medical corps, signals, engineering and so on. But all of us, as a necessary foundation for our special training, must have a knowledge of military organization, life and law.

The Canadian Officers’ Training Corps gives that foundation to those at our universities who, by their training and capacities, are fitted to be leaders in wav, as they are to be advisers of their fellows in peace. An announcement from McGill’s Canadian Officers’ Training Corps appears below. It offers staff, students and graduates opportunity

for military training while following their usual occupations.

It is certain that many will pass through the Canadian Officers’ Training Corps of McGill. Proof of Canadian determination is given by the volunteers who, throughout Canada, crowd the armouries of both French- and English-speaking regiments.

It is well that it should be so. We must be trained if we are to succeed in resisting German aggression. War demands physical fitness; for, active service is more exhausting than any game. Today, war is won by those who best use the tools of modern warfare.

Ranks of McGill C.O.T.C. Open to Past Students

War Service Advisory Board Established by McGill

HE following statement was issued by the McGill University Contingent, Canadian Officers’ Training Corps, on September 9:

“The establishment will be increased and for the present enrolment will be restricted to British subjects and undergraduates of McGill and past students of all universities.

“Application for enlistment should be made at the C.O.T.C. Headquarters, 3480 University Street, Montreal, which will be open every even- ing after 8 p.m., commencing September 11, 1939.

“Applicants will be examined as to medical fit- ness, previous service and capabilities, and those who are unfit but possessing special qualifications will be directed to the best suited non-combatant service.

“Tt is the intention that all members will receive basic training, consisting of instruction. common to all arms of the service such as discipline, drill, map reading, military law, organization, adminis- tration, etc., and on completion of the basic train- ing members will be designated for that branch of the service which they desire to enter and for which they are considered best qualified, such as cavalry, artillery, infantry, flying corps, engineers, signals, medical corps, army training corps, etc.

“The establishment of a branch will depend upon the number seeking service in that particular arm of the service and classes in certain branches may be restricted in number. Upon designation to a branch class a member will receive prelimin- ary training for a commission in that branch of the service. The member who completes his pre- liminary officer’s training and desires active ser- vice will then proceed to a training depot for full qualification as an officer provided he has proven himself efficient.”

HE following statement was issued by McGill University on September 13:

“There will be established within McGill Uni- versity a War Service Advisory Board consisting of an appropriate number of representatives of the staff, the graduates and the Canadian Officers’ Training Corps. In addition, the Government will be invited to have representation on the Board.

“The general purpose of the Board is to ensure that all those associated with McGill University, staff, students and graduates, who wish to play a pact in Canada’s war effort, will have an oppor- tunity of getting advice as to the particular acti- vity to which each one can bring the greatest knowledge, experience and competence and thus make the greatest contribution towards the win- ning of the war, whether it be in the capacity of commissioned officer or enlisted man or inter- preter, whether in aviation, artillery, cavalry, infantry, machine gun unit, whether in science or in medicine and surgery, whether in the produc- tion and distribution of essential materials or in the activities of civil administration.

“In regard to the students enrolled in the Uni- versity, this Board will have a special and very important advisory role. The students will all be urged to consult the Advisory Board before they commit themselves to any line of service. Their right place may be where they are, pursuing their present course of training, or else in some other assignment than that to which they are at first attracted. It is the intention of the University to put at their disposal all the knowledge it can muster as to the divers places where they can best perform the part they want to perform in the war effort of Canada.

(Continued on Page 40)


The Principalship

A Statement from Sir Edward Beatty, OBE Kis. Lee

Chancellor of McGill University

CAN quite understand

the desire of the grad- uates of McGill to be periodically advised of the changes which may be made in the staff of the University and par- ticularly of important ap- pointments such as that to the Principalship. The Governors of the Univer- sity are very glad to meet the graduates’ wishes in this respect, but, of course, can only do so when the selection has been formally made. Un- der the statutes of the University the selection of the Principal is the sole responsibility of the Board of Governors, though the statutes re- quire prior consultation with Senate, and since Mr. Douglas’ resignation was received, conferences of committees of the Board and Senate have been very numerous. The members of the Governors’ committee were: The Principal, Major George C. McDonald, Vice-Chairman of the Executive and Finance Com- mittee, and Mr. Arthur B. Purvis. Representatives of Senate were Deans Hendel, O’Neill, Brown, Le Mesurier, Fleming and Vice-Principal Brittain of Macdonald College.

During these deliberations it was indicated that the members of the selection committee were unanimously of the view that an attempt should be made to secure a Principal from Canada—the reason being not that it would not be possible to secure a suitable Principal from outside of Canada but because the plan of ex- pansion and reorganization upon which the University has embarked could, in the judgment of the Governors’ and Senate’s representatives, be best carried out under the supervision of someone having a knowledge of the University’s plans and policies, as well as of the Canadian university situation generally.



The progress thus far made indicates that an appropriate selection will be made, although a spe- cific recommendation as to an individual is not yet ready for submission to the Board of Goy- ernors. All these steps have been taken in such a spirit of cooperation and harmony, as to leave no doubt that the final deci- sion will be unanimous.

To me and the other members of the governing body it is a matter of great regret that we are losing the services of a man so admirably quali- fied as Mr. Lewis W. Douglas. During his year and a half’s tenure of the Principalship there has been ample evidence of the goodwill and mutual confidence which has existed

C.P.R. Photo

between the governing body and the Principal, and the Governors are deeply appreciative of Mr. Douglas’ very substantial contribution to the progress of the University since January, 1937. Personally, my regret goes a little beyond the loss which McGill has sus- tained. Had it been possible for Mr. Douglas to remain in Canada for several years more, I had looked forward to his playing a prominent and useful part not only in the University life of the Dominion but in its economic and social progress. He is the type of man who, by virtue of his great ability, magnetic personality and human sympathies, would have been an asset to this country from every angle.

A further announcement will be made just so soon as the Governors are in a position to do so.


Chancellor, McGill University.



= 4


The Graduates’ GIFT To MCGILL!




(which will be used for War Service as a Drill Hall and Armoury)


—- 0

Have You Done Your Part ?

The Graduates’ Society must collect the balance of pledges made during the campaign in 1936; and



A Generous Response to this Appeal Is Earnestly Solicited

GRADUATES’ SOCIETY - 3466 University St., Montreal


ssociated Screen News photo courtesy Waller G. Hunt Co., Ltd.


Foundations of Gymnasium Completed, Steel Work to Begin Shortly By

HE Gymnasium that has been the dream of generations of graduates is now a reality. As announced in the Summer issue of THE McGILi NEws construction started in June. The excavations have been completed, foundations are being poured, and it is expected that erection of the structural steel will commence before the first of October. It is hoped that the building will be completed by the first of March. According to the original estimate the cost of the building and equipment was to have been $280,000, as follows:

Estimated cost of building........... $235,000 Engineer’s and Architect’s fees....... 15,000 Estimated cost of equipment......... 30,000


Actually, the cost will be in the neighbourhood of $294,000, as follows:



Cost of building, including floor-cover-

ings, hardware, electric fixtures, etc. $239,000 Engineer’s and Architect’s fees....... 15,000 Gost of equipments... ee ee 19,000 Cost of tunnel to connect the gymna-

sium to the existing central heating

Plantae: 4 ee Be aoe eee 16,009 Contingency item to take care of un-

fOrESeenliEXpPeNseSe nS 2% 2 oc eee 5,000


The Lady Strathcona Donation, now in the general funds of the University, amounts to approximately $105,000 and the graduates, through the Society, have pledged themselves to provide $175,000 and to make every effort to raise the additional $14,000 required on account of the expected cost of the building and equipment being $294,000 instead of $280,000 as

previously estimated. (Continued on Page 40)


It is pssible to grow a plant to maturity without using any soil. ure grC being supplied by chemicals which are added to the sand at definite intervals.

Research at Macdonald College

ACDONALD COLLEGE has followed a con- stent programme of research since the first years c its existence. In 1906, a year before the first classesentered the College, investigative work was begun in land which had been set apart for the use of thenewly-organized Department of Agronomy. Variety trials with grain were started in order to collect information on the yield, quality, date of maturig, and general suitability of the varieties then it existence. Corn breeding work was under- taken,and improvement and heredity studies with soy-beas were begun. The following season breeding work vas started with grain. (Up to this time prac- tically 10 breeding work had been done with forage crops 1 Canada, and none was being carried on with any crp in the Province of Quebec). At the same time eperiments were begun to test the value of differet: methods of fertilizing peat soils, and the Departnent of started investigating methoe to detect adulteration of maple products. The cause of many disorders in farm crops has only ben discovered during the last few years, and in mar cases satisfactory control measures for these disordes remain to be determined. In this connection



These swede turnips are growing in sterile sand, all their food


the role of the rarer elements in the soil is engaging the attention of plant pathologists and others, and pioneer work in this field is being done at Macdonald College. Small amounts of boron, iron, manganese, etc., are necessary to plant growth, a fact which is only beginning to be properly appreciated. For example, turnips which are grown in soil lacking a sufficient amount of boron become woody and dis- coloured. Their internal anatomy becomes modified, extensive cytological and physiological changes taking place. Browning of the flesh makes them unsaleable.

A lack of available manganese in the soil will cause a characteristic disease in oats; many similar examples could be given. The detection and control of these diseases is one of the problems facing the investigators.

Celery growers find difficulty in keeping their celery in good condition in cold storage during the winter—breakdown is likely to occur at any time and it has not yet been possible to forecast how long the celery will remain good. It has been found that the type of soil on which the celery is grown, the presence or absence of disease, the kind of spray material used, the amount and mixture of fertilizers applied to the soil, and the occurrence of frost injury


all have a bearing on the quality of the crop. Here are questions for the horticulturist to answer: what type of soil will grow celery which will store well ? What cultural practices should be used, and what combination of fertilizers should be applied to produce a crop which will be least likely to be affected by disorders in storage ?

The approach to the solution of such questions may be made along two paths. Individual workers in each department may assign themselves specific problems for study to which they devote the time not given to lecturing. But it is becoming more and more evident that this manner of approach has its limita- tions. In present-day investigations so many factors become involved that no one man can have the necessary specialized knowledge in all the related fields. For the solution of a single problem expert knowledge in five or six subjects may be required.

To meet this situation, these larger problems are being investigated co-operatively by each of the departments which may be interested in any one project. A committee composed of representatives from each department concerned is appointed, each member contributing specialized knowledge in his own particular field.

The Pasture Committee was set up in 1931 and has been engaged since that time on an extensive survey of the pasture situation in the Province of Quebec. It may not be generally realized that almost one-fifth of all the occupied land in Quebec consists of pasture, often rough and unimproved. pastures are a great natural asset, forming as they


do a source of cheap feed for farm animals, which is available for almost six months every year. Yet, notwithstanding their great economic impo'tance, pastures are only too likely to be taken for gianted; few farmers seem to realize that their grazing lands, to remain productive, should be given thougit and care, just as any other crop. methods of fertilizing and grazing, to chanre the

It is possible, by proper

botanical complex of a run-down pasture, elimnating weeds and grasses of little or no nutritive valte, and encouraging useful strains of valuable herbage. In the same way the better pastures may be mairtained at the peak of productivity.

The personnel of the Pasture Committee onsists of representatives of four departments, and th: work of the Committee is sub-divided as far as posdble in accordance with the varying interests involved. Each department is engaged on some phase of the work and, while every individual project is of neceisity a more or less independent investigation, each set of results has a direct bearing on the main pnblem. Much of the detail work is carried out by griduate students, who are assured of an abundance of thesis material.

The Agronomy Department studies the reponse given by various kinds of fertilizers applied at diferent rates on the and the efect of working sod as compared with surface applcation

various soil types,

of fertilizers. The Chemistry Deadethert makes preliminary soil surveys of the districts in whici work is to be carried out, analyzes the soils and herbage,

and makes a special study of phosphorous and potash

Left, the Horticulture Department produces all kinds of tree and bush fruits, and vegetables, and conducts exper iments to detrmine

the best cultural practices for different crops.

This student is setting up an experiment to test the effects of different combirations

of fertilizers on the growth of celery plants. Right, nutritional studies form an important part of the investigational work of the Animal Husbandry Department, and much of it is carried out in laboratories such as the one illustrated. As the picture indicates, use is frequently made of small animals, such as rabbits, in studying the feeding value of foods and rations for the larger farm animals.



Reet ae

Students studying cellular physiology in the Department of Plant Pathology, which also gives instruction in the fundamental botanical subjects.

relations. The Botany Department carries out floral surveys and analyses and makes greenhouse studies to show floral response on different soil types. The Department of Animal Nutrition, through its animal feeding tests, evaluates the feeding value of different mixed and pure ‘species of pasture herbage.

A project such as this, with all its interlocking problems, cannot be completed in a few seasons. Results must be checked and treatments tried and proved before definite recommendations can be made. It is evident, however, from the work done to date, that fertilizer applications, at a cost within the means of the average farmer, together with proper cultural practices, can maintain our pasture lands in good condition year after year. Progress reports on the work accomplished appear periodically in various scientific journals.

Another problem being studied by the committee method is that of soil fertility. The purpose of the study is “‘to gain knowledge of conditions in certain soil types and to apply this knowledge to improve the crop-yielding power of the soils.’’ The Depart- ments of Agronomy, Bacteriology, Chemistry, and Physics co-operate in this, and work thus far has been concerned with the podsol, a light-textured soil which is the type most prevalent in Eastern Canada,


and which has considerably greater potential than actual fertility.

The field work is carried out on representative farms in the Eastern Townships, with the active co-operation of the owners. Experimental plots are set up in which the soil is modified in a number of ways by the addition of manure, chemical fertilizers, lime, etc., in various combinations. Grain and hay are grown in these plots and the yield from each is recorded, along with notes on growth. The physical properties of the soil in the areas being studied are determined by the Physics Department; the Chem- istry Department analyses the soil, recording the changes induced by the different treatments, and determines the differences in composition of the plants harvested from the various plots. The Agronomy Departments plans the arrangement of the field experiments and analyses the data statistically. Studies of the effect of the treatments upon the soil microflora are made by the Bacteriology Depart- ment. This larger project is an outgrowth of the fertilizer trials which were formerly carried out by the Department of Agronomy alone, and the informa- tion obtained will be available to growers, enabling them to grow larger and better crops on the same area, with a minimum of effort and expense.


The production of improved varieties of farm crops by breeding and selection has been an important part of the programme of the Agronomy Department since 1906. The purpose of this work is to develop varieties of grain, grasses, corn and roots which will be more suitable than those previously available to The breeding work at Macdonald College is directed toward the production of hardier, more productive and better quality varieites adapted to Quebec and to regions having similar climatic condi- tions.


The creation of a new variety is not in itself a difficult task; but to produce one. which will at the same time be superior to already existing varieties and, once having obtained it, to make seed available to growers, may well involve fifteen or more years of patient work of crossing, selecting, and testing. Knowing this, the plant breeders wisely decided at the outset to confine their recommendations to those strains which gave promise of being a very definite improvement over existing sorts. That they have achieved a striking success is evidenced by the fact that three improved varieties of oats, one of barley, one each of wheat and rye, four of corn, one of clover, two of swede turnips and two of soybeans have already been introduced. list, much of the early work is only now coming to

While this is an imposing

fruition, for new lines are constantly being isolated from the wealth of material accumulated during the past thirty years.

No new variety or strain is released to growers until it has successfully undergone rigid tests in the field, has demonstrated outstanding superiority over existing varieties and, on the basis of this proved superiority, has been recommended by the Provincial Seed Board. Multiplication of seed is done on the Seed Farm, one hundred and twenty acres of land owned and managed by the College, to the operation of which the Provincial Government contributes.

Macdonald rhubarb is the outstanding contribution to new varieties coming from the Horticulture Department. It is characterized by its tender, red- coloured stalks, which are in sharp contrast to the green stalks found in most rhubarb. A single superior plant noticed in a field of rhubarb seedlings was the parent and from this the Macdonald variety has been built up; it is now being grown on five continents. In addition, a new strain of this variety, which pro- duces no seed stalks, will soon be ready to undergo rigorous testing.

Breeding and nutrition studies form the main research work of the Department of Animal Hus- bandry. To achieve absolute accuracy in their feeding trials with swine the members of this department have introduced into North America a new system of handling experimental animals. in such trials is to divide the animals into groups and

The usual method


to pen and feed the individuals of each group together. At Macdonald College, however, each animal is penned and fed separately, and an accurate record of feed consumed by each is obtained; this is obviously impossible when several animals are eating from a common trough, where the stronger animals may be able to secure a larger share of the feed available. In connection with the work improved methods of statistical analysis are being developed applicable to this type of data.

Since it is a slow and expensive business to carry on feeding tests with large animals, interesting work is being done with rabbits and guinea pigs in an effort to determine how far the information gained from trials with these “‘pilot’’ animals may be trusted when rations for cows are being planned. Some of these feeding trials form part of the Pasture Project already described.

In collaboration with the Quebec Government a new breeding project has just begun. A small herd of Aberdeen Angus cattle has been purchased, and the object of the experiment is to demonstrate the possibilities in raising baby beef calves as a sideline for the small farmer.

The Chemistry Department co-operates in the research work of the other departments of the College more intimately concerned with the practical problems by providing some of the quantitative control of their experiments. Thus much of the work in this depart- ment consists of routine analyses and the investigation of methods of analysis which may be required in specific investigations. Special problems in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Biochemistry are being studied.

New and improved methods are being evolved for the detailed chemical and mechanical analysis of soil, and particularly for the separation and chemical analysis of the colloid fractions from the different horizons of the soil. This work is particularly im- portant because of the growing demand for surveys of soils on a national scale, the ultimate aim of which is to delimit the areas best suited to the production of specific crops. This department has already helped carry on an extensive survey of soil types found in the Province of Quebec.

In connection with the pasture work which has already been mentioned, studies on the nature and importance of the organic phosphorous compounds in soils are being carried on, and new methods of distinguishing organic from inorganic phosphorous have been evolved in the laboratories. Methods for maintaining a high vitamin-A content in milk pro- duced during the winter months are also being studied.

The Physics Department is also working with the dairymen, developing a method for the recovery of

(Continued on Page 54)


Photo courtesy Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai


The Theatre in Japan:

A. Foreigner's Observations By

T IS often said that Japan today is in a stage of

transition, that ancient and modern, eastern and western are struggling for supremacy. In a sense this is true. Yet it would be more accurate to say that these influences live and grow side by side, their relative strength being determined by local conditions.

In the field of drama this is amply illustrated. The Noh play or dance, the oldest form of dramatic presentation in Japan,