The Jew


Human Sacrifice

[Human Blood and Jewish Ritual]

An Historical and Sociological Inquiry BY


(Regius Professor of Theology at Berlin University)

[Translated from the 8th edition with corrections, new Preface and additions by the author]


London : Cope and Fenwick

The English translation by Henry Blauchamp, B.A., ex-scholar of Chrisi’s College, Cambridge

Entered at Stationers Hall by Cope and Fenwick Copyright in America by the Bloch Publishing Co.


From the Preface to the first Three editions

From the Preface to the Fourth edition

Preface to the Re-written Re-modelled work at 8th


Preface to the English Translation

Introduction— Bibliography Human Sacrifice—“Blood Ritual’’

Human Blood Serves to Ratify the given word

The Blood of other Persons used for oe

Purposes Human Blood Cures Leprosy Utilisation of One’s own blood Blood of Executed Persons: Hangman’s Rope Corpses and Parts of Corpses Animal Blood

Waste and Evacuations of Human and Animal Bodies

The Blood Superstition as a Cause of Crime

Blood Superstition Among Criminals and its Consequences

Superstition among Dements: Crimes Owing to Religious Mania aT SLC ie ee

What does the Jewish Religious Law say about the partaking of Blood and the utilisation of portions of Corpses Veena tan ane






XV. Popular Therapeutics of Blood wae tela within the Jewish people . . ent Sy.

XVI. Is the use of Christian Blood required or allowed for any rite whatever of the Jewish religion? . . 147

XVII. The Austrian Professor and Canon Aug. Rohling . 155 XVIII. The Pretended Evidence of Tae for Jewish

Ritual Murder . . MeN taney 6 rity

XIX. Contradiction of the “Blood Accusation’’ Mi pious Jews as well as Christians . . . . 236 XX. About the Origin of the “Blood Accusation’ . . 275 EET BR is eid too Wa LG ath RRL a nA ae A un ee - . 287


BE = Berlin lL = Leipsic


Every year, especially about Easter-time, there is a revival of the accusation that the Jews, or, if not all the Jews, certain Jews, make use of the blood of Christians for purposes of ritual. The charge is bound to be often repeated, so long as the replies to it are limited to the contradiction and exposure of the falsity of the reasons brought forward. ..... That is why I discuss the accusation in connection with the significance of blood as regards religious belief, and par- ticularly as regards the superstitions of humanity at large.

I expressed my opinion on the question, whether the Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes, as far back as 1882, the year of the Tisza-Eszlar trial, in the Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung (12th August, No. 32). Stamens Further investigations (apropos of the Bernstein case, v.p. 144 sg.) convinced me more than two years ago, that, whilst I was correct in my nega- tive answer to the charge, it was possible, and even necessary, to base it upon a deeper foundation. I am now compelled to publish the results of my fresh researches by the renewal of the controversy about ritual murder in consequence of the assassination of an eight year old girl in Corfu during the night of the 12th to 138th April this year (v.p. 213 sq.) . . . I have made it my special business to let the facts speak for themselves, and have...... almost confined


myself to quoting, without alteration, the actual state- ments in the sources of information I have utilised: so anybody who wishes can arrive at an unbiassed judgment for himself.

The facts I have had to bring forward are, for the greater part, of a very loathsome kind. But, in order to cure the terrible disease of superstition, we must first of all know the disease. . . . My exhortation to our Christian priesthood, to our whole Christian people is: Up and gird yourself for battle, not only against unbelief, but also against superstition! When German Christendom, free from superstition, stands firm in true belief in the crucified Saviour, risen from the dead, the question, so far as concerns Germany, whether Christian blood is ritually employed by Jews, will be exploded and futile, for more reasons than one.

2 July, 1891. H. L. Strack.


I have occasion to be thankful for the success of this volume. Most of the journals which used formerly to talk about “Jewish blood-ritual’’ and “Jewish ritual murder,’’ have been for several months gradually exchanging those phrases for “Jewish blood-murder,’’ “Jewish blood-supersti- tion,’’ avoiding direct reference to ritual. However, they still try to prove to their readers, that blood- murder and cases of blood-superstition are peculiar to Judaism, and so they keep alive the idea that there must be something ritual behind it all.

Still, the charge against the Jews of using human blood is considerably less effective than it was up till now. Accordingly, those persons who formerly em- ployed it with great success as a means of getting up an agitation, have abundantly emptied the vials of their wrath over me, who, if I have not yet killed it, have yet deadened its effect a great deal. In particu- lar, O. Bachler (of the Staatsbiirger-Zeitung), Balla (of Das Volk), and E. Bauer (of the Neue Deutsche Zeitung), have dared shamelessly to calumniate me as a scholar, as a man and as a Christian, although they knew the truth, or could have ascertained it without any trouble. Nor did it suffice them to utter the falsehood that Prof. Strack was hardly acquainted with the elements of Hebrew grammar, and only knew about the Talmud what the Rabbis had stuffed him with; they had actually the effrontery to pre-


sume that I was receiving money from Jewish quarters for my writings. Attempts are even made to alienate from me the trust of my students, to influence whom, for the benefit of our Evangelical Church and our German fatherland, is both a heart- felt need and a consolation to me in a life full of cares. Were I descended from Abraham on my father’s or my mother’s side, I should not have to blush. How- ever, as it has been tried to fasten suspicion on me in that respect also, I here affirm that all my ancestors were of pure “Christian-German’”’ descent, the men mostly clergymen or teachers.......

In order to render the calumniations of myself and the continuance of the blood-accusation extremely impressive, the three persons named (together with Carl Paasch and Normann-Schumann), after exalting the Osservatore Cattolico, a paper which appears in Milan, to the dignity of a “universal organ of the Vatican,’’ sent the stuff that suited their purposes to Milan, and transferred it thence into their papers! As the statements had been published in such a “highly esteemed foreign journal,’’ readers must be at once convinced of their truth! ....

If, on the discovery of a crime, distinct external indications do not point to the perpetrator, inquiries must be made into the possible motive for the deed. Avarice, lust, revenge, jealousy, are motives known to every coroner, and about which, in any given case, he inquires in due course. But he ought likewise not to omit to ask whether the motive might not have been a superstitious one. On pp. 89 sq. I have given numerous examples proving that blood-superstition has often been a cause of crime. An accurate know- ledge of superstitions will not seldom lead to the discovery of the criminal, and in other cases prevent following up a false scent. I may therefore recom- mend this work to the attention of lawyers.


It is yet more requisite for clergymen and teachers to pay heed to the truths propounded in this book. He who has had the good fortune to grow up in a God-fearing family, very often learns nothing about either the barbarity and vices or the superstitions of other social strata, and therefore readily believes it to be all harmless or even denies its existence. .... I have now therefore pointed out, even more emphati- cally than in the original edition, that superstition, especially the blood-superstition,’’ is even nowadays very wide-spread, and that it has had in the past, as it has in the present, deplorable, yes and horrible, con- sequences.

18th Oct., 1892. H. L. Strack.


Untruth does not become truth by frequent repetition. But as long as it is repeated, it is a duty incumbent on him who claims to be a champion of truth, knowledge, and justice, to be continually ex- posing the falsehood of his opponents’ assertions, and to state the real truth of the matter. Silence cannot be refuted, and the endeavour to kill the defender of truth by its adoption is only too general. If then the protagonist of truth were actually silent and did not show his power at all, how much more would not conclusions be drawn therefrom against the cause championed by him! For my part I shall not keep silent, so long as I can still wield the sword of mind, and I am also taking measures that my words may be known to those whom they are intended to influence.

I had indeed hoped, after my exposure of the blood-falsehood ’’ in 1892, to be able to devote myself entirely to different duties: what an enormous task the last decades have imposed upon those investiga- tors of the Old Testament who, rightly, consider the essence of the old faith reconcilable with serious scientific work! and how important it is to show that a knowledge of Jewish literature can be acquired not only by Jewish scholars, but also by at least a few Christians! And my hope seemed to be well-founded, since Aug. Rohling thought it best to answer by silence my crushing attack on him (ch. 17)! Whilst those who had till then calumniated me, viz., Bach-


ler, Balla, and Bauer, made, so far as I was aware, no further attempt to besmirch my good name. Albertario’s Osservatore Cattolico (v. pp. 170 seq.) had whimperingly appealed for help in the Neue Deutsche Zeitung,* and got none, because the few German scholars, who had till then assumed the possibility of ritual murders, recognised that they would put their honour in the pillory if they attempted to give such assistance. Bauer’s Neue Deutsche Zeitung collapsed in Leipsic, and the Volk, unfit for the struggle of life in Berlin, fled into a corner. Abbé David Albertario ‘was condemned in 1898 to three years’ loss of liberty on account of revolutionary disturbances. Carl Paasch, the author of “Eine jiidisch-deutsche Ges- andtschaft und ihre Helfer,’ L. 1891 (965 pp.) was recognised, also by a Court of Law, as being no longer responsible for his actions. Robert Normann-Schu- mann, who tried to press himself upon me in 1885, and who, later on, taking pay simultaneously both from Anti-semites and Jews, deceived both of them, thought it advisable, when he was prosecuted for lése-majesté, and feared the discovery of other inci- * 15 Oct. 1892, No. 241: “The following appeal from the editor of the Osservatore Cattolico in Milan reaches us, with the request to publish it:—‘ As soon as Prof. H. Strack shall have published the brochure announced by him, we intend to reply to it by a compre- hensive refutation. Thanks to the kindness of some readers and the ardour which our co-workers have displayed in this campaign, we already possess considerable material for proving the existence of Jewish ritual murder—in cases, which can be attested by wit- nesses who are still diving (Alb. refers, e.g., to the Eisleben case! v.p. 218). Nevertheless it would be very useful if readers in foreign parts, by contributing fresh evidence, were to prove their interest in these highly-important polemics. In all cases they may certainly rely upon the strictest discretion (!). We know that there are still in private libraries and other collections important MSS. on the subject, which should no longer be withheld from publicity. Any contribution, any suggestion, any explanation is welcome. .. . We also beg all Christian editors to make this appeal known.’ ”’ The Neue Deutsche Zeitung, the Staatsbiirger-Zeitung, Berlin, 16 Oct., No. 485, the Neue Preussische Zeitung (at that time still the organ of the ill-reputed Freiherr v. Hammerstein), 18 Oct., No. 487, and other papers did their best to circulate the appeal.


dents in his career, to go and live quietly in hiding in free Switzerland. Paulus Meyer (v.p. 148 and pp. 224 sq.) who was hired to traduce me, had to undergo Severe terms of imprisonment owing to libels and insults he had uttered. O. Bachler alone was in a position publicly to continue to deviate consciously from the truth (v.p. 218).

My hope, however, proved to be mistaken. The “blood-accusation’’ appeared such an_ effective means of exciting the populace that the anti-semites were constantly tempted to make misuse of the word. At the end of March, 1899, a favourable opportunity was afforded by the murder of Agnes Hruza, at Polna (v.pp. 228 sq.). It did not matter to the un-Christian people, who called themselves Christians, whether the murderer were discovered or the suspicion resting on Hilsner were seriously probed; but Dr. Baxa, who was nominally counsel for the murdered girl’s mother, was to assume and prove ritual murder. But he only proved his disgraceful ignorance. For example, according to an abstract of the shorthand report, which reached me a few days ago, he made, besides other falsehoods, the following statement: “And I ask whether Dr. Auredniéek (Hilsner’s counsel) knows the declaration of the Rabbi Vital, that the coming of the Messiah will be hastened by the blood of sacrificed Gentile virgins, or whether he knows it is stated in the first book of the Sohar, that the fourth, the best palace shall be in- habited by those who have killed Akums, ie., Christians; whether he knows the assertion of the Rabbi Eliken (read: ‘Elieser’), that all Gentile nations are mere brute beasts.’’*

* Baxa got this rubbish out of Rohling’s Polemik u. Menschenop- fer,’’ Paderborn, 1883, 58, 72, 75; Cf. in my book p. 157, pp. 161 sq. As to the description of Gentiles as beasts v. J. Kopp, Zur Judenfrage,’’ 107-118; Bloch, Acten’’ I., 253-263. That the expression “‘ Akum ’’ is entirely an invention of the critics is shown in my Einleitung in den Talmud,”’ 4th Edition, Leipsic 1908, p. 51.


The unrest caused by this trial, especially in Austria and South Germany, has compelled me to postpone the revised edition of my Einleitung in den Talmud,’’ which has been out of print for a long time, and to expose anew the blood-falsehood.’’ My book in its present form will be convincing to all who have not, out of racial hatred, made up their minds to maintain the truth of the “blood-accusation ”’ against the Jews, despite all refutation. It is in great part a new book. Most of the contents of chapters 18—20 have been re-written ; it was important to show that history affords us no evidence of Jewish ritual- murder,’’ and that the most eminent Popes and tem- poral rulers have emphatically declared against the “blood-charge,’’ that no single Pope has counten- anced it. The first part, too, has been considerably augmented. I am certain that now, besides ecclesi- astics, teachers, and state attorneys, even professional Folklorists will be able to learn and get stimulus from it.

I have had to include in my purview very varied domains of human knowledge, and the procuring of the material has cost much time and labour; e.g., in order to be in a position to make a trustworthy state- ment with regard to J. E. Veith’s oath (pp. 245 sq.), I had to write some fifteen letters. I am the more heartily grateful to Professors Dr. Ludwig Freytag, Dr. Otto Hirschfeld, Dr. med. J. L. Pagel, who are all in Berlin, and others, in that they have answered several questions of mine, and have suggested many improvements in this work. To this expression of thanks I add the request that those who are in a position to complete, to corroborate, or to confirm by their own experience the statements here made public, may not shrink from the trouble of sending me in that connection as precisely accurate a com- munication as may be possible. Even a paragraph


that appears unimportant in itself may acquire value by its context.

My publicly entering the lists on behalf of my conviction, and particularly my refutation of the calumnies against the Jewish religion,* has procured me not only abuse in the daily Press, but also serious material damage. But I am none the less assured that it is my duty to go onas before. During the last months, I had to contend against the feelings of pain and disgust occasioned by all the horrors and deeds of horror, about which I had to write even more in the fifth edition than in the preceding. But I then reflected that the esteem in which both the Christian religion and our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ are held among the Jews, had suffered severely, owing to the aforesaid calumnies, and especially owing to the “blood-accusation ’’ against them. I knew it to be my sacred duty as a Christian theologian to do everything in my power to compass the conviction in Israel that Jesus does not desire falsehood but truth, not hatred but love: He makes them just who truly believe in Him, and He is worthy that mankind should bend their knees in His name.

May my fight against untruthfulness and super- stition at any rate help towards the furthering of peace and a purer knowledge of God upon earth!

Gross-Lichterfelde, nr. Berlin, 18 Feb., 1900.

* I emphasise the word “religion,’’ and refer to my brochure, Die Juden diirfen sie ‘Verbrecher von Religionswegen’ genannt werden?’ L. 1893 (30 pp.) J. C. Hinrichs. I add with satisfaction that several German courts of justice later on gave decisions in accord with my demand in the pamphlet, and above all, the spread- ing of the “Talmud-campaign’’ in Bavaria has been made punishable at law.


This translation, which is the work of Mr. H. F. E. Blanchamp, is in many respects superior to the German original. I have not only cancelled many paragraphs of only temporary or local importance, but carefully revised the whole, and added a good deal of new material—vide especially chapters xviii and xx. So I hope my book will make its way in English-speaking lands, and help to discredit the pro- pagation of the abominable blood-accusation.. The work of remodelling went greatly against the grain, but “to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin’’ (James iv, 17).

I am nota ‘“ Philo-semite ’’ in the now generally accepted sense of the word. I have even been slandered as an“ Anti-semite.”’ As a Christian theologian, I wish simply to serve the truth, for the sake of my Lord, who is the way, the truth, and the life.”

Hermann L. Strack.

Grosslichterfelde West, near Berlin, March 7th, 1909.



The exceeding importance of blood in life has doubtless been evident to mankind from remotest times, seeing that it was inculcated by frequently recurring experiences, e.g., in butchering and in hunt- ing. Man himself has a feeling of weakness after losing much blood, and if he loses more than a certain quantity of blood, life itself ceases.

The knowledge of this high value of blood gave rise, firstly, to bloody sacrifices (a living being is the greatest sacrifice), especially human sacrifices (Ch. 2); secondly, to symbolical* acts (Ch. 3); thirdly, to the conviction that extraordinary effects are procured by blood, particularly the human, but also animal blood (Chas. 4-7, 9). Closely connected with this con- viction is the other, that wonderful powers belong to the human body, also to the corpse, and its parts (Ch. 8); especially to the body of one who has died a violent death, e.g. of an executed person and a suicide (Ch. 7); and, further, to that of an innocent human being, e.g., a little child, especially an unborn, and a virgin (Chas. 11-12). Therewith is connected the use of the bodies, bodily parts and evacuations of animals for healing and other purposes (Ch. 10). Another first element, especially when there is blood adhering, is the fatal knife or sword.

To what results, often hideously outrageous to * Cf. J. B. Friedreich, “Die Symbolik und Mythologie der Natur,’’

Wiirzburg, 1859, 676-684; P. Cassel, “Die Symbolik des Blutes und Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von Aue,’’ Be. 1882 (265).




present-day reasoning and feelings of decorum, such ideas have led, is shown in the “Curieuse, Neue. . . Hauss-A pothec, Wie man durch seine eigne bey sich habende Mittel, als dem Blut, dem Urin, Hinter-und Ohren-Dreck, Speichel und andren natiirlichen geringen Mitteln, seine Gesundheit erhalten, fast alle selbst vor incurabel gehaltene Kranckheiten ... . heilen, und sein Leben, vermittelst Gottes Gnade. . .

conserviren mége und kénne . . . . Von einem Lieb- haber der Medicin. Frankfurth am Mayn, 1699” (316), p. 33:—

“Der Mensch, das Ebenbild, ist Gott selbst angenehm,

Hat vierundzwanzig Stick zur Arzenei bequem,

Bein,’ Mark,® die Hirnschal samt derselben Moos’ ist gut,

Das Fleisch und Fett, die Haut,’ Haar, Harn,’ Hirn,” Herz" und Blut,”

Die Gall,* die Milch,“ der Kot, der Schweiss® und auch der Stein,”

Das gelbe Schmalz," so in den Ohren pflegt zu sein,

Die Ndgel,” Speichel,® auch die Nachgeburt® ist gut,

Der Helm,” der Samen® und menstruosisches® Blut.’’* Much of the contents of the book forms even now

matter for popular belief in most parts of Germany,

Cf. especially :

A. Worrke, “Der Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegen- wart,’’ Third Edition, by E. H. Meyer. Be. 1900 (536).

E. L. Rocunouz, Deutscher Glaube und Brauch im Spiegel der heidnischen Vorzeit, I. (Deutscher Un- sterblichkeitsglaube.)’’ Be., 1867 (335).

* Roughly translated as follows:

“Now man, God’s likeness, pleasing to His sight, Hath four and twenty items for med’cine suited quite, Bone, marrow, skull, and eke its pulp are good, The flesh and fat, the skin, hair, urine, brain, heart, blood, The gall, the milk, the dung, the sweat, and eke the stone, The yellow wax, which in the ears doth find a home, The nails, the spittle, and the after-birth are good, The caul, the semen, and the menstrual blood.”



U. Jann, Zauber mit Menschenblut und anderen Teilen des menschlichen Kérpers’’ (in Verhandlungen der Berliner anthropologischen Gesellschaft,’’ 1888, 130- 140).

M. R. Buck, Medicinischer Volksglauben und Volksa- berglauben aus Schwaben.’’ Ravensberg, 1865 (72).

Fiicet, “Volksmedizin und Aberglaube im Franken- walde.”’ Munich, 1863 (81).

G. LamMert, Volksmedizin und medizinischer A ber- glaube in Bayern und den angrenzenden Bezirken.”’ Wurzburg, 1869 (274).

M. Horse, Volksmedizin und Aberglaube in Oberbay- erns Gegenwart und Vergangenheit.”?’ Munich, 1888. A new edition in 1893 (244). “Das Jahr im ober- bayerischen Volksleben mit besonderer Beriicksichti- gung der Volksmedicin.’”’” Munich, 1899 (48), 4°.

V. FossgL, Volksmedicin und medicinischer A berglaube in Steiermark*.”’ Graz, 1886 (172).

J. Gotpscumipt, Skizzen aus der Mappe eines Arztes. Volksmedicin im Nordwestlichen Deutschland’’ (Oldenburg). Bremen, 1854 (157).

L. Strackersan, “Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Her- zogthum Oldenburg.”’ Twovols. Oldenburg, 1867 (422 and 366).

U. Jann, “Hexenwesen und Zauberei in Pommern.’’ Breslau, 1886 (196).

W.J.A.v. Terrav ann J. D. H. Temne, Die Volkssagen Ostpreussens, Litthauens und Westpreussens.’’ Be., 1837 (255-286: Meinungen und Gebréiuche.”’ )

M. Toppen, A berglauben aus Masuren2’’ Dantzig, 1867 (168).

H. Friscupier, Hezenspruch und Zauberbann. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Aberglaubens in der Pro- vinz Preussen.””? Be., 1870 (167).

E. Lemke, Volksthiimliches in Ostpreussen.”? Three

volumes. Mohrungen, 1884, 1887 (190 and 203 ioe Allenstein, 1899 (184).


W. Mannuarnt, Die praktischen Folgen des Aberglau- bens, mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Provinz Preussen.’’ Be., 1878 (88).

The following should not remain without men- tion in this connection :—

Asertus Macnus [!], Bewahrte und approbirte sympa- thetische und natiirliche Geheimnisse fiir Menschen und Vieh.’ -Reutlingen, 1874. (Cf. Am Urps- BrunNEN II., 88-90, 96-8, 175-7, 222; III., 134-5, 141-3; UR-QUELL, 1893, 279).

“Das 6 und 7. Buch Mosis, d. i. Mosis magische Gei- sterkunst. .. . nach einer alten Handschrift’’ ['}. Often, e.g. Philadelphia |?], 1888 (79).

“Geheim- und Sympathiemittel des alten Schafer Thomas,’ 14 parts, Altona, 1858-76—“ Des alten Schafer Thomas enthiillte Geheim- und Sympathiemit- tel,’"* Reutlingen, 1875 (64).—“91 Geheim- und Sympathiemittel des alten Schafer Thomas,’’ new, re- vised edition. Magdeburg, 1867.

See for the period of the middle ages, H. B. Schindler, “Der Aberglaube des Mittelalters. Ein Beitrag zur Culturgeschichte.’’ Breslau, 1858 (379). Espcly. 163-193, 129, 130, 225; pp. xi. to xxii. contain a detailed bibliography.

An abundance of relevant material taken from different nations and periods is contained in Am Ur-Quell. Monatschrift fiir Volkkunde, Hamburg, 1890-5; later Der Urquell, Leiden, 1897-8, published by F. S. Krauss (during 1881-9 the title was Am Urds- Brunnen).

The more important articles in Votume 111. (1892): H. F. FEILBERG, Totenfetische im Glauben nordgerma- nischer Volker’’ (blood-magic, blood of executed persons as cure for epilepsy, love-magic, blood as a remedy. Spittle, sweat, skulls, the thieves’ candle. Bones; hearts, especially of unborn children ; human skin. Human flesh, after-birth, etc.).—B. W.


22 THE JEW AND Human SacriFice

Scurrer, “Totenfetische bei den Polen’? ( healing and magic power of corpses, of their parts, of blood as well as of animal bones; blood of living people, blood of the Saviour and consecrated wafers, thieves’ superstitions, coffin and other things pertaining to corpses ; cloth connected with corpse, rope of a hanged person, straw connected with corpse; snakes and other animals ).—H. v. Wu1stocki, Menschenblut im Glauben der Zigeuner’’ (love-magic, thieves’ super- stitions, healing of diseases, Jews. There are also described well-attested occurrences in the most recent times). P. 93: The South-Hungarian gypsies believe that Jews and Greek-Oriental priests smear their beards with human blood, to make them long and thick.’ —Tu. Acuguis, Ueber den Zaubermit Blut u. Korperteilen von Menschen und Tieren.’?—J. Szm- BRZYCKI, Ostpreussische Haus- und Zaubermittel.’’ (Cf. I., 136-8, and ALTPREUSSISCHE MoNATSSCHRIFT, 1889, 491-501).—K. Ep. Haasz, Volksmedizin ’”’ (Mark of Brandenburg ec. 1598).—O. Scuety, “Ueber den Zauber mit dem menschlichen Korper u. dessen einzelnen Teilen im Bergischen.’’—A. F. Dorrier, “Das Blut im magyarischen Volksglauben.’’—Vol. iv. (1893): A. F. CHamperain, Zauber mit mensch- lichem Blut u. dessen Ceremonialgebrauch bei den Indianern Amerikas’’ ; v. also V., 90-2.—O. Scuett, “Volksmedizin im Bergischen.’’—H. Vo.KsMann, Schleswig-Holsteinische Haus- u. Zaubermittel.— Vols. V.and VI.: A. Haas, “Das Kind im Glauben u. Brauch der Pommern.’’—Uroqurtt I. (1897): VuxKasovié u. Dracitevié, “Sidslavische Volks- medizin.”’—J. Bock, Volksmedizin aus Niederés- terreich.”” “Mélusine, Recueil de mythologie, littérature populaire, traditions et usages, publié par H. Gaidoz and £. Rolland,’”’ Paris 4°. I. (1878); II. (1884-5); ITT. (1886-7), etc. Here may be mentioned the very long


essay, “La fascination,’ by J. Tuchmann, vol. IJ-IX.

F. S. Krauss, “Sitte und Brauch der Siidslaven,”’ Vienna, 1885 (681); “Volksglaube und _ religidser Brauch der Siidslaven,’’ Miinster, 1890 (176).

H. v. Wlislocki, “Aus dem inneren Leben der Zigeuner,’’ Be. 1892, 75-98; Blutzauber.’’ (It would be worth the trouble closely to compare what has been testified in regard to the gypsies with what has been deposed about the Jews. There have presumably been plagiarisms on the part of both classes of * globe- trotters ’’); “Volksglaube u. religidser Brauch der Zigeuner,’’ Miinster, 1892 (184). “Aus dem Volks- leben der Magyaren,’’ Munich, 1893 (183); Volks- glaube u. relig. Brauch der Magyaren,’’ Munich, 1893 (171); Volksglaube u. Volksbrauch der Siebenburger Sachsen,’’ Weimar-Be., 1893 (212) (Cf. Urquell, 1893, 69 sq.; 98-100).

J. Haltrich, “Zur Volkskunde der Siebenbirger Sachsen.’’ A new edition revised by J. Wolff, Vienna, 1885 (535).

Nicholas Lémery, “Traité universel des drogues,”’ Paris, 1714:—L. F. Sauyé, “Remédes populaires et superstitieux des montagnards vosgiens,”’ in Mélu- sine,’ IIT., 278 sq.

A. de Cock, Volksgeneeskunde in Vlaanderen,”’ Ghent, 1891.

M. Bartels, “Die Medizin der Naturvolker,”’ L., 1893 (361).

A. Léwenstimm, Aberglaube und Strafrecht. Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung des Einflusses der Volksan- schauungen auf die Vertibung von Verbrechen,”’ Be., 1897 (232). 136-147: Die Volksmedizin.”’ (From the Russian. The author brings forward a large amount of material, especially for Chapters 11, 12 of the pre- sent book, but does not quite sufficiently examine into the causes of the phenomena.)


According to the reports of recent travellers, there would be no difficulty in collecting, particularly from Africa, parallels and complements of the contents of the first part of this work.

C. v. Hovorka and A. Kronfeld, Vergleichende Volksmedizin. Eine Darstellung volksmedizinischer Sitten und Gebrauche, Anschauungen und Heilfak- toren, des Aberglaubens und der Zaubermedizin,”’’ Stuttgart, 1908. 2 vols.

The “popular medicine ’’ notions enumerated in these books and essays, and similar ones elsewhere, go back to very ancient times. Cf. in the first place the Ebers papyrus, which was written in the sixteenth century B.c., but is far older in its contents. “Papyrus bers. Das hermetische Buch tiber die Arzneimittel. Published by G. Evers’ (L., 1875; done into German by H. Joachim, Be., 1890). It names as ingredients of Egyptian medicaments: (a) blood; dried blood: the blood of the ox, the ass, the dog, the pig, and of other animals, but not of man. (b) Flesh; living flesh; fresh flesh; putrid flesh; flesh of a living ox. (c) Milk; human milk; women’s milk: milk of a woman who has borne a boy. (d) Semen; semen of the ‘m‘m: and of the ‘m‘mt (%), 88, 7. (e) Ordure; ordure of man, crocodile, cat, dog, ass, gazelle, etc. Menstrual blood was not used; the same is probably true of the urine (but Cf. Erman’s Aegypten und agypt. Leben im Altertum,” Tiibingen, 1887, 486).— Cf. as well A. Wiedemann, “Das Blut im Glauben der alien Aegypter ”’ (Ur-Quell, 1892, 113-6).

Cf. especially the commencement of Book 28 of the important Natural History of C. Plinius Secundus, who perished in 79 a.v. at the eruption of Vesuvius. A contemporary of his was the physician Xenocrates of Aphrodisias, about whom the renowned Claudius Galenus of Pergamos (131-200 A.D.) gives the follow-


ing account*:—“He described, as from personal experience, with much boldness, what ills could be cured by the use of human brain, flesh and liver; or, again, the bones of the human skull, fibula, and fingers, some burnt, some unburnt; or, lastly, by the use ofblood. . . . He writes also what effect dung may have, if it is smeared on wounds and into the cesophagus, and is swallowed. He speaks also of the internal use of ear-wax. . . . The most nauseous, however, is the dung and the drinking of the menses. ; Less abominable is the outward application of excrement or of sperma. Xenocrates distinguishes with great nicety the potential effects of sperma by itself, or of the sperma which flows out of the vagina after coitus.” Galen goes on to relate that doctors employ the blood of pigeons, owls, cocks, lambs, and goats, but declares that these and many other remedies taken from the animal kingdom are partly directly rejectable, partly superflous, since there are numerous well-tested remedies.

I was at first of the opinion that the anonymous “Hauss-Apothec’’ was merely the expression of the beliefs which at that time obtained in popular medi- cine; but in 1892 I convinced myself that cts contents were believed in among wide circles of PHYSICIANS even after the middle of the eighteenth century.

Take such a book as the Neu-Vermehrte, Heil- same Dreck-A potheke, wie nemlich mit Koth und Urin Fast alle, ja auch die schwerste gifftigste Kranck- heiten, und bezauberte Schaden, vom Haupt bis zun Fiissen, inn- und 4usserlich, glicklich curiret wor- den; Durch und durch mit allerhand curieusen, so nitz- als ergetzlichen Historien und Anmerckungen,

* “Tlept rév drhav dappdxwv xpdcews cat Suvduews,” xi, 1, Opera ed. C. G, Kihn XI. (L. 1826), 249 sq.; done into German in L.

Israelson, “‘ Die ‘materia medica’ des Klaudios Galenos,’’ Juryew (Dorpat), 1894, 176.

26 THe JEw AND Human Sacririce

auch andern Feinen Denckwiirdigkeiten, Abermals bewaéhrt, und iim ein merckliches vermehrt, und verbessert. Von Kristian Frantz Paullini. Franckfurt am Mayn, 1697’ (420 and 207 pp.).* This work is now regarded almost exclusively as a characteristic example of a dirty and ridiculous superstition which died out two centuries ago. But the assumption is wrong. For the author, who was born 25th February, 1648, received, after prolonged medical studies and much travelling, an honourable invitation to a professorship at Pisa, which only illness obliged him to decline. Later, after he had practised in Hamburg and in Holstein, he became body physician and historiographer to Bishop Christoph Bernhard in Miinster, and remained in that position till the death of his patron in 1678. He then stayed in Wolfenbiittel and Hameln, till in 1689 he was appointed physician to his native town, Eisen- ach; he died as such on 10th June, 1712. As regards his busy literary activity in the domains of poetic art, natural science and medicine, and also historical research, I refer to J. Moller, Cimbria literata IT.,”’ (Copenhagen, 1744), 622-633, and K. F. H. Marz, “Zur Beurtheilung des Arztes Christian Franz Paullini,”’ Gottingen, 1872 (39). (“ Abhandlungen der Gét- tinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, vol. 18.’’) Among other things, the latter says: Medicine takes a different shape with almost every century; so the remains of the past, however fantastic, should not be regarded as contemptible,’’ and P.’s name deserved to be mentioned as that of a thinking, learned, well- meaning doctor, and one of the most industrious men of his time.’’

Joh. Chr. Schréder (1600-1664, Cf. Poggendorf,

* The first edition: Heilsame Dreck-Apotheke’’ (Frankfort a.M. 1696) is not within my reach. A third edition appeared in 1713.

~ ea


Biographisch-litter. Worterbuch zur Geschichte der exakten Wissenschaften,’ II., 843), a physician of Westphalian origin, who practised in Frankfort a. Main, compiled a thesaurus of drugs, which was commented on by Friedr. Hoffmann, the elder, a physician in Halle (d. 1675): “Clavis pharmaceutica Joh. Schroederi cum thesauro pharmaceutico (Halle, 1681).’’ A German translation first appeared in Nuremberg, 1685. Its second edition consists of a folio covering more than 1,500 pages: Volistandige und Nutzreiche Apotheke. Das ist: D. Johannis Schroederi treflich-versehener Medicin-Chymischer héchstkost- bahrer Artzney-Schatz Nebst D. Friderici Hoffmanni dariiber verfassete herrliche Anmerckungen als eine Grund-Feste beybehalten: So nun aber . . . aus denen itziger Zeit Firtrefflichen und Beriihmtesten Medicorum und anderer Gelahrtesten . . . Schriff- ten . . . . Zusammengetragen und vermehret. Aya Auf vieles und unablassiges Verlangen Teut- scher Nation zu sonderem Nutzen erdfinet von G. D. Koschwitz, M.D.S.P.,’’ Nuremberg, 1693 (Koschwitz is presumably the Georg Daniel Koschwitz who died in Halle, 1729, Professor of Medicine).—Ch. 33 of Book IT. (pp. 82 sq.), which treats of the chemist’s shops, is headed: “On the blood.’’ The text observes: “In the chemist’s shops one certainly finds no blood; yet it is customary at times to use them (bloods), especi- ally when they are still fresh,’’ and there follows an enumeration of various bloods: of ducks, geese, asses, dogs, pigeons, horses, goats, men, menstruating women, hares, partridges, oxen and turtle-doves.— In Book V., the Animal science,’’ is a 20-page section devoted to man. It begins p. 31: “The natural apothecary articles. These are taken either from the still living body, and are: !The hairs, *the nails, *the spittle, ‘the ear-wax, ‘the sweat, ‘the milk, "the menstrual blood, *the after-birth, *the urine, “the

28 THE Jew AND Human SaAcriFIcE

excrement, “the semen, “the blood, “testicles, “worms, “the lice, “the skin that surrounds the head of the foetus. Or from parts of the dead body, such are: ‘The whole corpse, *the skin, *the fat, ‘the bones, ‘skulls, ‘the pulp of skulls, ‘the brain, *the gall, *the heart.’”’—P. 33: “If you then ask, whether one can safely use inwardly the menstrual blood? This we can answer with a Yes. Take a cloth, steep it well in the menstrual blood, let it dry; when you wish to use it, draw the same with squill vinegar out of the cloth which one can fitly employ to promote the woman’s monthly flux. The linen cloth soaked in such blood and dried is laid externally on erysipelas or also on other swellings and pains; pre-eminently it quiets the pains of Podagra. It has cured tertian fever when such a cloth has been merely hung on the neck. The maidens prepare their love-potions from it, after which commonly ensues delirium or madness.’’

Even in D. W. Triller’s “Thesaurus medicamen- torum,’’ which appeared in 1764 at Frankfort a. M., the following drugs are still mentioned: Stercus caninum album (album graecum), pavonum stercus, vaccae stercus et urina, bufones exsiccati, cervi priapus, equi testes, etc.—In respect of the prescrip- tion book of the Ettenheim municipal surgeon, Joh. Conr.. Machleid, which embraces the period from 1730 to 1790, Cf. Anzeiger des Germanichen National- museums "’ (Nuremberg), 1895, 89 seq., and Ur-Quell, 1897, 167-9. “To cure colic: Take three living lice from the patient; should he have none, from another person. Give it him to eat in a bit of bread. A sure and approved medicine; but you must not tell that patient, else he won’t take it.”’

Much that is relevant here can be found in a work of the Leipsic zoologist, William Marshall, which was first known tome in November, 1899: “Neu erdfinetes, wundersames Arznei-KAastlein, darin allerei grund-


liche Nachrichten, wie es unsere Voreltern mit den Heilkraften der Thiere gehalten haben, zu finden sind.” L., 1894 (127; 11 pages of bibliography at the end). I quote from it the follow- ing details, p. 84: “The Dresden taxation of apothecaries in 1652 contains 51 animal fats, amongst them human and monkey fat. Human fat was said to strengthen, disperse, alleviate pains, soften hardened scars, and dispel small-pox scars. Monkey fat works similarly, chiefly as dissolvent; lion fat strengthened and dispersed hardened glan- dular swellings, and for dry scabs they would rub in leopard fat with laurel oil.’’ 89: “In the royal Prussian taxation of 1749 . . . occurs a spirit of human brains.’’ 94: Even human after-birth and the umbilical cord did not escape our ancestors’ pharma- cological art. The former was applied externally, and given internally for epilepsy and for the endurance of labour-pains. Secundinae occurred in German drug- stores right up to the middle of last century.’ 80: “Even the great Friedrich Hoffmann recommended in the previous century the following prescription for epilepsy : The whole ashes of a young crow still in the nest, and of a turtle dove, 2 lot (a lot is 40z.) of burnt human skull, 2 lot lime-tree buds, 1 lot lion’s excre- ment; all these substances were separately digested with brandy, after which the fluids were poured together.’’ Cf. also ibid. 74 sq.



A. The high significance which human sacri- fices have possessed in many heathen religions, or still possess, is so well known that it need only be named, not proved (Assyrians, Phoenicians, Aztecs, ete.).—It is equally well known that such sacrifices were from the beginning most strictly forbidden to the Israelites, the possessors of the revealed religion of the Old Testament: Leviticus 18, 21; 20, 2 sq.; Deuteronomy 42,885 48100) Ag: however, even nowadays there are highly educated persons who believe such sacrifices were quite alien to the Greeks and Romans, as well as to the ancient Germans, I give here a list, at any rate, of the more important books.

Human sacrifices among the Greeks: F. G. Welcker, Kleine Schriften,’’ ITT. (Bonn, 1850), 160-4, and “Griechische Gétterlehre ”’ (Gottingen, 1858, sq.), II., 769, sq.; K. F. Hermann, Die gottesdienstl. Alter- thitmer? (der Griechen),”’ Heidelberg, 1857, §27; G. F. Schomann, Griechische Alterthiimer,’’5 IT. (Be., 1873), 250 sq.; J. Beckers, “De hostiis humanis apud Graecos,’’ Miinster, 1867 (69); P. Stengel,“ Die grie- chischen Kultusaltertiimer,’”? Munich, 1898, 114-8. History, legends and first elements—* Rudimente ’’— (vicarious sacrifices) afford proof that before sea- voyages, at the beginning of a war, before battles, and altogether, when the lives of many people were in peril, human beings were sacrificed by the Greeks.

“Bioop RitrvuaL” 31

The Emperor Tiberius’s severe ordinances certainly almost put a stop to such sacrifices; notwithstanding, human sacrifices in honour of Zeus Lykaios occurred in Arcadia even in the second century a.p.—Among the Greeks and Romans: E. v. Lasaulz, “Siithnopfer der Griechen und Rémer’’ (in “Studien des klassischen Alterthums,’”’ Regensburg, 1854, 233 sq.); O. Keller, “Lateinische Volksetymologie und Verwandtes,”’ L., 1891, 331-349 (“ Einiges tiber rémische und griechische Menschenopfer’’), especially 340 sq.-Among the Romans: M. Landau, “Menschenopfer bei den Rémern,’’ in Ur-Quell, 1892, 283-6; H. Diels, Sibyl- linische Blatter,’’ Be., 1890, 86 sq.*—Further, Cf. V. Hehn, “Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere,”’ 5th edition, Berlin, 1887, 438-44; U. Jahn, Die deutschen Opfergebrauche bei Ackerbau und Viehzucht,”’ Breslau, 1884, 61-9; J. Lippert, Kulturgeschichte,”’ II. (L., 1885), 34. About human sacrifices (especially pure virgins) in German fairy-tale and stories, v. L. Freytag, Ur-Quell, 1890, 197-9.

B. The so-called Bauopfer,’’ building sacrifices (the immuring of a human being, later also of an animal or other rudiments ’’), in order to assure the foundation of a house, a dam, etc., are really only a special kind of human sacrifice. Bibliography: F. Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde,